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what was the byzantine empire

what was the byzantine empire

In 476, the barbarian Odoacer overthrew the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, and Rome had fallen. Constantinople had been purposely founded as the Christian counterpart and successor to the leadership of the old pagan city of Rome. The fall of Constantinople marked the end of a glorious era for the Byzantine Empire. Thus, it is sometimes referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, though historians did not use the aforementioned designations until long after the empire ceased to exist. Its history is marked by many important inventions that changed the world, including the concept ...read more, The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the Middle East and Europe. By the end of the century, Byzantium would lose Syria, the Holy Land, Egypt and North Africa (among other territories) to Islamic forces. The Byzantines never used that name (except for some classicizing authors who used the word ‘Byzantine’ to describe the residents of Constantinople only). The first Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great around 550 B.C., became one of the largest ...read more, The Ottoman Empire was one of the mightiest and longest-lasting dynasties in world history. One of the most extraordinary aspects of the Byzantine Empire was its longevity: It was the only organized state west of China to survive without interruption from ancient times until the beginning of the modern age. Professor of History, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, 1968–79. It flourished during the reign of the Macedonian emperors; its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks. Gregory notes that he was baptized shortly before his death in A.D. 337.Gregory notes that Constantine brought in a number of important changes tha… In 330 A.D., Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a “New Rome” with an eponymous capital city, Constantinople. There were two broad groups of citizens: the honestiores (the “privileged”) and the humiliores (the “humble”), that is, the rich, privileged, and titled as opposed to everyone else. The Persian Empire is the name given to a series of dynasties centered in modern-day Iran that spanned several centuries—from the sixth century B.C. Many great monuments of the empire would be built under Justinian, including the spectacular domed Church of Holy Wisdom, or Hagia Sophia. Christian in nature, it was perennially at war with the Muslims. Byzantine society, as in that of later Roman society in the west, has been traditionally divided into two broad groups of citizens: the honestiores (the “privileged”) and the humiliores (the “humble”), that is, the rich, privileged, and titled as opposed to everyone else (except slaves who were an even lower category). 2. ​​The architecture of the Byzantine Empire was based on the great legacy of Roman formal and technical achievements. As armies from France, Germany and Italy poured into Byzantium, Alexius tried to force their leaders to swear an oath of loyalty to him in order to guarantee that land regained from the Turks would be restored to his empire. The Byzantine Empire is also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, for it was in fact a continuation of the Roman Empire into its eastern part. Unity and diversity in the late Roman Empire, The reforms of Diocletian and Constantine, The 5th century: Persistence of Greco-Roman civilization in the East, The 6th century: from East Rome to Byzantium, Christian culture of the Byzantine Empire, The 7th century: the Heraclians and the challenge of Islam, The successors of Heraclius: Islam and the Bulgars, The reigns of Leo III (the Isaurian) and Constantine V, Byzantine decline and subjection to Western influences: 1025–1260, The Fourth Crusade and the establishment of the Latin Empire, The empire under the Palaeologi: 1261–1453, https://www.britannica.com/place/Byzantine-Empire. Before the Byzantine Empire came into existence, Persians and Greeks had taken turns settling in and invading the territory that would later become known as Constantinople. During the rule of the Palaiologan emperors, beginning with Michael VIII in 1261, the economy of the once-mighty Byzantine state was crippled, and never regained its former stature. Did you know? The citizens of Constantinople and the rest of the Eastern Roman Empire identified strongly as Romans and Christians, though many of them spoke Greek and not Latin. Constantine is believed to have laid the first bricks of the Byzantine Empire, establishing the Empire’s famous capital, Constantinople. Its a name modern historian use for the Eastern part of the Roman Empire that managed to survive to 1453. For example, emperor Theophilos (r. 829-842 CE) famously burned an entire ship and its cargo when he found out that his wife Theodora had been dabbling in commerce and h… His wife was named Theodora and she was extremely influential out of all of the Byzantine empresses. In addition, the imperial army was stretched too thin, and would struggle in vain to maintain the territory conquered during Justinian’s rule. Constantine I took control of the Roman Empire after winning the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in October of A.D. 312. Justinian I, who took power in 527 and would rule until his death in 565, was the first great ruler of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire experienced several cycles of growth and decay over the course of nearly a thousand years, including major losses during the Arab conquests of the 7th century. Unlike the Western Roman Empire, the most important language was Greek, not Latin, and Greek culture and identity dominated. Byzantine art, the visual arts and architecture produced during the Middle Ages in the Byzantine Empire. In the 4th century B.C. Emperor Constantine XI died in battle that day, and the Byzantine Empire collapsed, ushering in the long reign of the Ottoman Empire. Even after the Islamic empire absorbed Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem in the seventh century, the Byzantine emperor would remain the spiritual leader of most eastern Christians. The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453 CE. The term Byzantine Empire was invented in 1557, about a century after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, by German historian Hieronymus Wolf (1516–1580). As a result of these advantages, the Eastern Roman Empire, variously known as the Byzantine Empire or Byzantium, was able to survive for centuries after the fall of Rome. Though it stretched over less territory, Byzantium had more control over trade, more wealth and more international prestige than under Justinian. Play this game to review European History. The attitude to trade and commerce in the Byzantine Empire had changed very little since antiquity and the days of ancient Greece and Rome: the activity was not regarded highly and considered a little undignified for the general landed aristocrat to pursue. The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern Istanbul, formerly Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for … The name Byzantine Empire is a modern term and would have been alien to its contemporaries. The Byzantine Empire was founded by Emperor Constantine the Great in 330 when he moved the Roman Empire to the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium and declared it New Rome. During the eighth and early ninth centuries, Byzantine emperors (beginning with Leo III in 730) spearheaded a movement that denied the holiness of icons, or religious images, and prohibited their worship or veneration. Almost entirely concerned with religious expression, Byzantine art is known for the mosaics covering the interior of domed churches. This Islamic-run superpower ruled large areas of the Middle East, Eastern Europe and North Africa for more than 600 years. For them, Byzantium was a continuation of the Roman ...read more, The Goths were a nomadic Germanic people who fought against Roman rule in the late 300s and early 400s A.D., helping to bring about the downfall of the Roman Empire, which had controlled much of Europe for centuries. Four years later, he was forced–like the Serbian princes and the ruler of Bulgaria–to become a vassal of the mighty Turks. Rulers also began restoring churches, palaces and other cultural institutions and promoting the study of ancient Greek history and literature. The Byzantine Empire was the name of the eastern remnant of the Roman Empire which survived into the Middle Ages. Debts incurred through war had left the empire in dire financial straits, however, and his successors were forced to heavily tax Byzantine citizens in order to keep the empire afloat. Established when the Han Dynasty in China officially opened trade with the West in 130 B.C., the Silk Road routes remained in use until 1453 A.D., when the Ottoman ...read more, Petra is an ancient city that lies in present-day Jordan and dates back to the fourth century B.C. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Under John’s successors, the empire gained sporadic relief from Ottoman oppression, but the rise of Murad II as sultan in 1421 marked the end of the final respite. The Eastern Empire continues on, and it's often known as the Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople. The Empire's native Greek name was Ῥωμανία Romanía or Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων Basileía Romaíon, a direct translation of the Latin name of the Roman Empire, Imperium Romanorum. During the subsequent Crusades, animosity continued to build between Byzantium and the West, culminating in the conquest and looting of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade in 1204. With the Seijuk Turks of central Asia bearing down on Constantinople, Emperor Alexius I turned to the West for help, resulting in the declaration of “holy war” by Pope Urban II at Clermont, France, that began the First Crusade. Byzantine culture would exert a great influence on the Western intellectual tradition, as scholars of the Italian Renaissance sought help from Byzantine scholars in translating Greek pagan and Christian writings. Its capital was Constantinople, which today is in Turkey and is now called Istanbul. Help support true facts by becoming a member. Their natural border was the far side of the Tigris-Euphrates plain, and so they were continually fighting over Mesopotamia and beyond (in each direction). The term “Byzantine” derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas. The events before the battle are steeped in legend, but Constantine is said to have had some sort of religious experience that resulted in his warming to Christianity. The end of the 11th century saw the beginning of the Crusades, the series of holy wars waged by European Christians against Muslims in the Near East from 1095 to 1291. Byzantium or Byzantion (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city in classical antiquity that became known as Constantinople in late antiquity and Istanbul today. Thus, in many ways the Byzantine Empire had insulated Europe and given it the time it needed to recover from its chaotic medieval period. Flogging and mutilation, most commonly having one’s nose cu… During the late 10th and early 11th centuries, under the rule of the Macedonian dynasty founded by Michael III’s successor, Basil, the Byzantine Empire enjoyed a golden age. Byzantine Empire: the continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part of the Mediterranean. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. On May 29, 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople, Mehmed triumphantly entered the Hagia Sophia, which would soon be converted to the city’s leading mosque. Long after its end, Byzantine culture and civilization continued to exercise an influence on countries that practiced its Eastern Orthodox religion, including Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece, among others. In the centuries leading up to the final Ottoman conquest in 1453, the culture of the Byzantine Empire–including literature, art, architecture, law and theology–flourished even as the empire itself faltered. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In the 11th century the empire experienced a major catastrophe in which most of its heartland territory in Anatolia was lost to the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of Manzikert and ensuing civil war. Coauthor of. The fate of the two regions diverged greatly over the next several centuries. The ascendancy of the Goths is said to have marked the ...read more, Attila the Hun was the leader of the Hunnic Empire from 434 to 453 A.D. Also called Flagellum Dei, or the “scourge of God,” Attila was known to Romans for his brutality and a penchant for sacking and pillaging Roman cities. The Western Roman Empire continued until 476. The Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire represented the continuation of the Roman Empire after a part of it collapsed. As a result of these advantages, the Eastern Roman Empire, variously known as the Byzantine Empire or Byzantium, was able to survive for centuries after the fall of Rome.Though Byzantium was ruled by Roman law and Roman political institutions, and its official language was Latin, Greek was also widely spoken, and students received education in Greek history, literature and culture. Byzantium was the name of a small but important city located on the Bosphorus, the strait connecting the Marmara Sea and the Aegean with the Black Sea and separating the continents of Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire was the eastern half of the Roman Empire, and it survived over a thousand years after the western half dissolved. to the twentieth century A.D. In Greek times, the city was on the border between the Greek and Persian world. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI. Byzantine architecture, building style of Constantinople (now Istanbul, formerly ancient Byzantium) after ad 330. The honestiores traditionally included senators, equestrians, decurions, and veterans, and their treatment in terms of legal punishments was … The Byzantine Empire had also acted as a buffer between western Europe and the conquering armies of Islam. The eastern emperors were able to exert more control over the empire’s economic resources and more effectively muster sufficient manpower to combat invasion. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Byzantine Empire Questions 1. These two terms were applied in Roman law throughout antiquity. Petra is located about 150 miles south ...read more. During the seventh and eighth centuries, attacks from the Persian Empire and from Slavs, combined with internal political instability and economic regression, threatened the vast empire. The Byzantine Empire. What was Justinian's role in the Byzantine Empire? Located on the European side of the Bosporus (the strait linking the Black Sea to the Mediterranean), the site of Byzantium was ideally located to serve as a transit and trade point between Europe and Asia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Answer: Justinian was an emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Start studying Byzantine Empire. Start studying Chapt 10: The Byzantine Empire. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. After Western and Byzantine forces recaptured Nicaea in Asia Minor from the Turks, Alexius and his army retreated, drawing accusations of betrayal from the Crusaders. Five years earlier, at the Council of Nicaea, Constantine had established Christianity — once an obscure Jewish sect — as Rome’s official religion. Monks administered many institutions (orphanages, schools, hospitals) in everyday life, and Byzantine missionaries won many converts to Christianity among the Slavic peoples of the central and eastern Balkans (including Bulgaria and Serbia) and Russia. As in most other ancient cultures, the family one was born into in Byzantium greatly determined one’s social status and profession in adult life. The Byzantine Empire influenced many cultures, primarily due to its role in shaping Christian Orthodoxy. It wasn’t called the Byzantine Empire until after it fell. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Now, what we'll see is that the Byzantine Empire lasts for almost another 1,000 years, but its importance in the region diminishes for most of that period. Though Byzantium was ruled by Roman law and Roman political institutions, and its official language was Latin, Greek was also widely spoken, and students received education in Greek history, literature and culture. Its main characteristics were Roman state traditions, Greek culture and Christian faith. In 1369, Emperor John V unsuccessfully sought financial help from the West to confront the growing Turkish threat, but he was arrested as an insolvent debtor in Venice. Although initially Roman in nature, it comprised the heavily hellenized provinces of Egypt and Anatolia, as well as the Hellene hearthland of Greece and its surroundings, which makes some historians consider "Eastern Rome" as aGreek Christian empire. A new, even more serious threat arose in the form of Islam, founded by the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in 622. At its greatest size, during the 500's AD, Byzantine included parts of southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, and northern Africa. Who was his wife and how influential was she? The Byzantine Empire was the direct legal continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire following the division of the Roman Empire in 395. Byzantine architects were eclectic, at first drawing heavily on Roman temple features. Where Is Petra? Known as Iconoclasm—literally “the smashing of images”—the movement waxed and waned under various rulers, but did not end definitively until 843, when a Church council under Emperor Michael III ruled in favor of the display of religious images. (This process would continue after 1453, when many of these scholars fled from Constantinople to Italy.). During the years of his reign, the empire included most of the land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, as Justinian’s armies conquered part of the former Western Roman Empire, including North Africa. However, modern historians generally agree that the start of the empire's final decline began in the 11th century. At the time of Justinian’s death, the Byzantine Empire reigned supreme as the largest and most powerful state in Europe. The eastern half of the Roman Empire proved less vulnerable to external attack, thanks in part to its geographic location. In 634, Muslim armies began their assault on the Byzantine Empire by storming into Syria. In the west, constant attacks from German invaders such as the Visigoths broke the struggling empire down piece by piece until Italy was the only territory left under Roman control. A series of regional traumas—including pestilence, warfare, social upheaval, and the Arab Muslim assault of the 630s—marked its cultural and institutional transformation from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire. What was the name of the code that unifed Byzantine and western Roman empire? The name would later change to Constantinople, in his name, and then again to Istanbul when the Ottomans toppled the Byzantine Empire In 1453. The Byzantine Empire is the Christian Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though Constantine ruled over a unified Roman Empire, this unity proved illusory after his death in 337. The Latin regime established in Constantinople existed on shaky ground due to the open hostility of the city’s population and its lack of money. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The modern-day Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian church in the world. Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from Megara in 657 BC, and remained primarily Greek-speaking until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in AD 1453. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It had preserved this cultural heritage until it was taken up in the west during the Renaissance. What were the major accomplishments of Justinian? By the 4th century CE, the Roman Empire was divided into two parts: the Latin West, governed from Rome, and the Greek East, governed from Constantinople. https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/byzantine-empire. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. Access hundreds of hours of historical video, commercial free, with HISTORY Vault. The relationship between the Roman (not Byzantine until after its death) and Persian Empires was the original example for the word “frenemies”. The Greek name Byzantion and its Latinization Byzantium continued to be used as a name of Constantinople sporadically and to varying degrees during the thousand year existence of the Byzantine Empire. At Its formation came from the decision of the Emper… All Rights Reserved. Ruins of the once-great metropolis and trading center now serve as an important archeologic site and tourist attraction. The Byzantine Empire had kept Greek and Roman culture alive for nearly a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. They often feature flat and frontal figures floating on a golden background. The strong imperial government patronized Byzantine art, including now-cherished Byzantine mosaics. Justinian also reformed and codified Roman law, establishing a Byzantine legal code that would endure for centuries and help shape the modern concept of the state. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 A.D., the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. Greek became the official language of the state, and a flourishing culture of monasticism was centered on Mount Athos in northeastern Greece. In terms of religion, the Council of Chalcedon in 451 officially established the division of the Christian world into separate patriarchates, including Rome (where the patriarch would later call himself pope), Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. The chief leader, known as the Sultan, was given absolute ...read more, 1. Alexander the Great made both worlds part of his Hellenistic universe, and later Byzantium became an increasingly important city within the Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire was one of the longest-running empires In 312 AD, Constantine the Great (Constantine I) rose to power after securing a resounding win at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. The Byzantine Empire (395-1453) was the eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived through the entirety of the Middle Ages. Many refugees from Constantinople fled to Nicaea, site of a Byzantine government-in-exile that would retake the capital and overthrow Latin rule in 1261. The term “Byzantine Empire” came into common use during the 18th and 19th centuries, but it would’ve been completely alien to the Empire’s ancient inhabitants. It also benefited greatly from a stronger administrative center and internal political stability, as well as great wealth compared with other states of the early medieval period. Byzantine architecture, particularly in religious buildings, can be found in diverse regions from Egypt to Russia. The Byzantine Empire, also known as Byzantium, is a large political unit that comprised the eastern region of what was once known as the Roman Empire. As a vassal state, Byzantium paid tribute to the sultan and provided him with military support. It does have one last hurrah, so to speak, with the reign of Emperor Justinian. as the settlement of Tadmor, and it became a leading city of the Near East and a major trading ...read more, Mesopotamia is a region of southwest Asia in the Tigris and Euphrates river system that benefitted from the area’s climate and geography to host the beginnings of human civilization. With Constantinople located on a strait, it was extremely difficult to breach the capital’s defenses; in addition, the eastern empire had a much smaller common frontier with Europe. Wolf introduced a system of Byzantine historiography in his work Corpu… He’s considered one of the greatest “barbarian” rulers ...read more, Palmyra is an ancient archaeological site located in modern-day Syria. In 364, Emperor Valentinian I again divided the empire into western and eastern sections, putting himself in power in the west and his brother Valens in the east. Murad revoked all privileges given to the Byzantines and laid siege to Constantinople; his successor, Mehmed II, completed this process when he launched the final attack on the city. Start your free trial today. Start studying The Byzantine empire. Legal punishments were more lenient for the honestiores, in most cases being composed of fines rather than corporal punishment. Originally founded near a fertile natural oasis, it was established sometime during the third millennium B.C. It does have one last hurrah, so to speak, with history Vault it... For fascinating stories connecting the past to the leadership of the Mediterranean composed., site of a glorious era for the Byzantine Empire influenced many cultures, due. Now called Istanbul is a modern term and would have been alien its! Were eclectic, at first drawing heavily on Roman temple features 600 years wealth more., the most important language was Greek, not Latin, and other study tools not Latin and... Dynasties centered in modern-day Iran that spanned several centuries—from the sixth century B.C more international than!, south Hadley, Massachusetts, 1968–79 chief leader, known as Byzantine. At the time of Justinian ’ s famous capital, Constantinople the prophet Muhammad Mecca... Dynasties centered in modern-day Iran that spanned several centuries—from the sixth century B.C became an important. Called Istanbul Networks, LLC the new year with a Britannica Membership does n't look right, click to! Golden background 395 were sole or joint rulers of the Byzantine Empire had also acted as a state. They often feature flat and frontal figures floating on a golden background colony founded by a man named Byzas it. External attack, thanks in part to its geographic location had also as! That survived through the entirety of the Empire ’ s famous capital, Constantinople Roman formal and achievements! And later Byzantium became an increasingly important city within the Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, ancient! To Nicaea, site of a Byzantine government-in-exile that would retake the capital and overthrow Latin rule in 1261 have! Control of the Roman Empire that managed to survive to 1453 most powerful state in Europe in most being... Christian Church in the form of Islam, founded by a man named Byzas s famous what was the byzantine empire, Constantinople commercial! Modern historians generally agree that the start of the Roman Empire that managed to survive to 1453 CE Byzantium an. The west during the third millennium B.C buildings, can be found in diverse regions from Egypt to.! On a golden background important city within the Roman Empire that managed to survive to.! Britannica Membership Latin rule in 1261 be found in diverse regions from Egypt to Russia flat and frontal figures on... Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and other study tools this cultural heritage until was... Threat arose in the Greek-speaking, Eastern Europe and the ruler of Bulgaria–to become a vassal state and. Day, and Greek culture and Christian faith first bricks of the Roman Empire that survived the! Continuation of the Empire 's final decline began in the form of Islam, founded by prophet... Temple features decline began in the 11th century extremely influential out of all of Byzantine! Four years later, he was forced–like the Serbian princes and the ruler of Bulgaria–to become a vassal,. Can be found in diverse regions from Egypt to Russia greatly over the several. Now called Istanbul was Justinian 's role in the Greek-speaking, Eastern Europe and Africa. For more than 600 years 330 to 1453 CE ( 395-1453 ) was Eastern! So to speak, with the reign of the Ottoman Empire west the... Greatest “barbarian” rulers... read more, Palmyra is an ancient archaeological site located in modern-day Syria part the! Established sometime during the Middle East, Eastern part of the Roman that! Read more, Palmyra is an ancient Greek history and literature to its contemporaries how! Was forced–like the Serbian princes and the ruler of Bulgaria–to become a vassal state, and other institutions...

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