imjin war results
 The conflict saw the regular employment of Japanese armies of up to 200,000, Chinese armies of 80,000, and the ongoing deployment of local Korean forces numbering in the hundreds of thousands. , Upon receiving the news of the Japanese attacks, the Joseon government appointed General Yi Il as the mobile border commander, as was the established policy. The attack was part of the Chinese Spring Offensive, the aim of which was to regain the initiative on the battlefield after a series of successful UN counter-offensives in January–March 1951 had allowed UN forces to establish themselves beyond the 38th Parallel at the Kansas Line.  The Japanese troops counterattacked successfully against the Jeolla coalition, forcing the Koreans to abandon arms and retreat.  General Kim Myong-won, in charge of the defenses along the Han River, had retreated. , After taking Dongnae, Konishi took the castle of Miryang, which he followed up by taking Taegu, which surrendered without opposition as the Koreans were concentrating their army further north. The Rifles served as the brigade's reserve and were deployed along Route 11.  At that point, the Japanese gave up further attacks and both sides pulled back.  These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict.  There, on July 10, the volunteer forces fought with a Japanese army retreating to Geumsan after a defeat at the Battle of Ichi two days earlier on July 8. Wakisaka escaped due to the speed of his flagship. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time. Bargaining from such fundamentally different perspectives, there was no prospect whatsoever for success in the talks.  Despite suffering high casualties, in the end the battle was a tactical victory for the Korean forces and resulted in the loss of over half of the Japanese fleet..  By making use of a narrow passage, Yi positioned his ships in a battle line that prevented the Japanese navy from making use of their numerical superiority.  Hyujǔng called the samurai "poisonous devils" who were "as virulent as snakes or fierce animals" whose brutality justified abandoning the pacifism of Buddhism to protect the weak and innocent.  By June 3, the Third Division captured Unsan, Changnyong, Hyonpung, and Songju. , During the night of 23/24 April, the Glosters' B Company, outnumbered 18:1, endured six assaults, calling in artillery on their own position to break up the last of them. Kwon Yul quickly advanced northwards, re-taking Suwon and then swung north toward Haengju where he would wait for Chinese reinforcements.  Membership in the tributary system was a prerequisite for any economic exchange with China; in exiting the system, Japan relinquished its trade relationship with China.  Realizing that the Shogunate would never agree to such a request, Yoshitoshi sent a forged letter and a group of criminals instead; the great need to expel the Ming soldiers pushed Joseon into accepting and to send an emissary in 1608.  The 29th Infantry Brigade, commanded by Brigadier Tom Brodie, consisted of the 1st Battalion Gloucestershire Regiment (Glosters), under Lieutenant-Colonel James P. Carne; the 1st Battalion Royal Northumberland Fusiliers (Fusiliers), under Lieutenant-Colonel Kingsley Foster; the 1st Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles (Rifles), under the temporary command of Major Gerald Rickord; and the Belgian Battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel Albert Crahay (700 men), to which Luxembourg's contribution to the UN forces was attached.  In the city, they managed to capture 100,000 tons of military supplies and grain. The Battle of Myeongnyang is considered Yi Sun-sin's greatest battle, largely as a result of the disparity of numbers.  Samurai never carried shields, with the katana being used to deflect blows. The effort of the Japanese garrison (about 7,000 men) of Ulsan was largely dedicated to its fortification in preparation for the expected attack. Thus the chief commander of the Ming forces at the time, Ma Gui, sent out General Jie Sheng (解生) and three other generals with an elite cavalry force to confront the Japanese forces. Japanese forces sallied out of the undefended eastern walls and made a run for Hanseong (Seoul), and they were hit with additional ambushes on the way back south and took heavy casualties..  Soon the combined force sacked the castle, and camped near the border; after the Koreans left for home, the Japanese troops suffered a retaliatory assault from the Jurchens. After helping win the war, Chen was celebrated as a hero in Korea and China. During the Edo period (17–19th centuries), the war was also called "Kara iri" (唐入り "entry into China" or more accurately "entry into Tang", the dynasty whose name is synonym with China). The pattern of the second invasion largely mirrored that of the first. "Resistance, Abduction, and Survival: The Documentary Literature of the Imjin War (1592–8)". After the steady Japanese advances on land, they planned to assault Hanseong (present-day Seoul) by late August or early September 1597. Because of this the ladder did not break and the men who saw him were loud in their praise. Namwon was located fifty kilometres southeast of Jeonju. Neither minefields, deeply dug shelters nor extensive wire obstacles had been constructed. This development allowed others within the court to further advance their personal agendas while Yi was severely punished.  On 23 July, the Japanese attacked with wooden siege towers, which were knocked down by Korean cannon fire.  The Korean navy considered it best to destroy naval support for the Japanese to reduce the effectiveness of the enemy ground troops. , Ming China also sustained a heavy financial burden for its role in defending Korea while also fighting several other conflicts in the same decade.  Advances in other areas such as agriculture were also aided by technology and artisans acquired and captured during the invasions.  The high casualty rate of the Joseon and Ming forces, and the large number of ears collected during the campaign was enough to build a large mound near Hideyoshi's Great Buddha, called the Mimizuka ("Mound of Ears"), Korean armies were also known to forcefully acquire food and supplies from civilians, both on an individual and organized level. 52–61. After Won Gyun replaced Yi Sun-sin as head of the navy, he was quick to take action and justify his newly acquired position.  The destruction of land and census registers made fiscal recovery difficult since taxation and corvée labour were based on them. The British embassy's account of the battle states that only 67 officers and other ranks remained with the regiment after battle. In June 1598, after Commander Konishi Yukinaga raised concerns about the supply situation and limited prospects for further territorial gains in the peninsula, 70,000 troops were withdrawn back to Japan, with only 60,000 left behind to guard the territory still under Japanese control. By employing both musket and arme blanche ("cold steel", swords, lances, spears, and the like), the Japanese were able to achieve success during the early phase of war. The second invasion (1597–1598) is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu" (丁酉). Deng Zilong†, Joseon:  The Korean commander, General Kim, committed suicide. 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